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“Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives.”

-James Madison



The Lost Horizons News

Mid-Edition Update for November 19, 2018

Please Start Here

Featured In This Update:

Why Charges Of MSM "Fake News" Are Perfectly Valid


Other Voices: 'Crucifying Julian Assange'


The Real Story Of Thanksgiving


Featured In Recent Editions:

Election Day, 2018. Scary, Right?


A Few Clarifying Words Regarding "Birthright Citizenship"


A CtC Study Guide Rediscovered


Milking The Madness


A Lost Horizons Voting Guide- Updated


The Core Issues In Any Income Tax Legal Dispute


Links To Additional Articles Posted Over The Last Several Newsletter Cycles Can Be Accessed At The LostHorizons Newsfeed


BTW, Don't Miss These Items Of Interest:

Regarding State Group Membership


The Educated American's Tax Filing Flow Chart


Why Are You Not Doing This?


Project Paradigm-Shift


Test Your "Income" Tax IQ!


A "Pragmatic" Perspective On The Tax And The Rule Of Law


Illuminating Anniversaries For This Week


And Hey! Don't miss the great stuff in the main page of this edition!


The upgraded Fifteenth Edition of CtC Is Now Available!

Btw, a copy of CtC from anywhere except the link above may not be a current edition. CHECK. It matters. Also, there ARE no e-book, Kindle or .pdf versions of CtC. Don't get taken in by efforts to sell you-- or even give you for free-- any such thing.


"The preservation of a free government requires, not merely that the metes and bounds which separate each department of power be invariably maintained, but more especially that neither of them be suffered to overleap the great barrier which defends the rights of the people. The rulers who are guilty of such encroachment exceed the commission from which they derive their authority, and are TYRANTS. The people who submit to it are governed by laws made neither by themselves nor by an authority derived from them and are slaves….."

-James Madison


No one can guarantee success in all they do in life. But anyone can guarantee that they DESERVE success in anything they do.


Why Charges Of MSM "Fake News" Are Perfectly Valid

...along with accusations of MSM enmity toward the People and their sovereignty...

A STORY ON NPR CAUGHT MY EAR the other day. It was about a recently-erupted PR tussle between an organization of doctors and the NRA.

The doctors argue that "gun violence" is a public health issue meriting pre-emptive remediation (so-called "gun control"), with blithe, if not hostile, disregard of the Constitutional proscriptions on government action in this area. The NRA says the doctors should "stay in their own lane".

THE OVERALL ASSERTION is, of course, nonsense, and is unsustainable both in principle and for practical reasons. Institutional pre-emptive "remediation" of bad behavior by people involving the use of guns is no different in kind from pre-emptive "remediation" of any other kind of bad behavior.

Such pre-emptive measures rest on the notion of "prior restraint"-- that is, an indefensible infringement on the rights of someone who hasn't actually done anything bad, without any cause other than the fears of the infringer (or the self-indulgent disinclination of the infringer to prepare him- or herself for personal defense against hazards which might arise).

Successfully implementing such pre-emptions would require putting everyone in the country in straitjackets or prison cells (and of course the jailers of everyone else would still be free to engage in bad behavior, but now with a vastly more vulnerable group of victims in their hands).

OF COURSE, the doctors attempt to subvert these intellectual responses by suggesting that bad behavior with guns is somehow uniquely bad, trading on the fact that it involves injuries and death and therefore should be exempt from analyses of mere principle and pragmatism.

The bloody-shirt ploy is a good one. It's hard even for those not directly affected to think and speak dispassionately on a policy issue when doing so means disregarding the anguish and passion of those who have been directly affected. Our natural instinct is to empathize with anyone affected by a crime like a shooting (mass or otherwise).

But as good as this ploy is at muddying the waters, it IS just a ploy, and with very little surface tension in the face of any kind of rational response. After all, injuries and deaths are hardly unique to shooting incidents.

For instance, bad behavior in cars (such as texting while driving, driving while drowsy or intoxicated, speeding, putting on makeup while driving, changing the radio station while driving, driving in unsafe conditions, etc., etc.) injures and kills far more Americans each year than are injured or killed by gunshot wounds.

Each of these millions (yes, that's millions, with an "m") of annual vehicular injuries and deaths are the result of bad choices knowingly made-- and thus are, in every way meaningful to the victims, survivors and society in general, deliberate. And yet these unctuous doctors are not calling for the elimination or restrictions of motor vehicles.

Similarly, the United States' prosecution of military aggressions abroad produces enormous levels of injury and death. And yet these unctuous doctors do not militate against these aggressions.

One can't help but be led to the suspicion that these doctors are not really interested in preventing injuries and deaths per se. One has to suspect that they simply can't stand the idea of products made solely for the purpose of causing injury or death in private hands, perhaps because they don't understand (or reject) the necessity of such products and such distribution.

Perhaps these folks worship the state as their god, in very much a religious sense. If so, they would therefore mindlessly reject the fact that, to be legitimate, state power must be entirely and securely subordinated to individual sovereignty. In turn, this would lead to a rejection of the utility and necessity of products and circumstances meant to enforce that subordination against a state their piety tells them is incapable of error, or against which any resistance, disrespect or prophylaxis is sinful.

That is, the religious-level worship of the state by these folks would prevent them from recognizing that voluntary delegations of individual sovereignty are the only source of legitimate state authority, and the only means by which an otherwise unconstrainable state can be so subordinated is by retention in the hands of the people of the means for enforcement.

To the blinkered view of these state-worshiping ideologues, then, there really could be no valid purpose behind the 2nd Amendment, nor any for private possession of effective, People-empowering weapons. In fact, both, in the eyes of these besotted lunatics, would be actively heretical notions...

BUT I DIGRESS. Though limning an overall deceptive fog about the subject of gun violence enthusiastically afforded a pulpit by MSM fellow-travelers, none of the foregoing constitutes the "fake news" with which this article is concerned. It simply lays out of the context in which several items of "fake news" were transmitted for public consumption.

Here is one such item dished out within the context of this NPR broadcast: "Over a hundred lives are lost every day to gun violence." This was declared by Dr. Rebecca Cunningham of the University of Michigan Medical School, who then followed this dramatic assertion with a quick, "...two thirds of which are suicides."

Well, Dr. Cunningham (and NPR), here's the thing-- suicide is not "gun violence". So the real statistic, embracing the unlikely assumption that still more nonsense is not to be found puffing the number, is "over 33 lives are lost every day to gun-violence." Still a terrible thing, but a long way from "over a hundred", the assertion of which-- unchallenged in any way by the MSM transmitter-- is fake news.

Cunningham later tried to rationalize the deceptive inclusion of suicide stats in her fake "gun violence" assertion by claiming that "suicide attempt survivors" often later declare themselves to have not really meant to kill themselves (or to be happy that they did not succeed). This is meant to suggest that it is only because gunshots are lethal that so many suicides are accomplished, and if people were denied access to guns, the suicide rate would decrease.

But, of course, "attempted suicide survivors" were axiomatically not really attempting suicide in the first place. Anyone who actually wants to suicide can find a rope and a rafter, or a bridge abutment, or busy freeway overpass, or a toy gun and a cop. Those who "attempt suicide" by non-lethal means don't mean it, and their perspectives are irrelevant to any question concerning those who really do mean it.

Those who DO really mean it, and who employ a gun to accomplish it, are simply making sensible use of the most convenient effective means available. That this is a cold thing to say is not denied, but what is being discussed here is not the tragic nature of suicide. Here we speak of the tragic murder of truth in our public policy debates by purveyors of fake news who pretend that over a hundred lives are lost per day in America to gun violence.

HERE IS THE OTHER fake news item to arise and be flogged into public view consumption during this particular 47-minute story on NPR last week: that "ten children a day in America die by gun violence". This was also asserted by the same Rebecca Cunningham, and again, without a murmur of challenge and demand for clarification by the purported journalists putting out the story.

But of course, while ten children might die each day by gunfire, this in no way means they are victims of "gun violence" in the sense the audience is meant to understand.

For one thing, some considerable number of whatever is the actual statistic concerning child deaths by gunfire are among the suicides previously discussed. This takes that large chunk entirely out of the category of "gun violence" deaths.

Further, although not expressly revealed in this particular story (because the interviewer apparently wasn't interested in such clarifications), it has long been the practice of those arguing the position of the deceptive doctors to lump 18- and 19-year-old gang members killed in drug-dealer's turf wars and other casualties of similar voluntary endangerments into the category of "children killed by guns". The label is meant to invoke images of pre-teen victims of random shootings perpetrated for no reason by lunatics enabled by the presence of guns in private hands, but the reality is very often quite a different thing altogether, and the use of that label and those stats without clarification is fake news.

INTERESTINGLY, THE SAME STORY in which these (and other) items of fake news appeared revealed the ill effects of the practice (albeit without recognition of the reveal or the irony attending it). A journalist interviewed as the opener to the story admitted that even though so-called "gun violence"-- even as meant in Rebecca Cunningham's expansively-defined "fake news" way-- is now only half of what it was 25 years ago, surveys routinely reveal that most Americans believe the opposite.

How about that! Fake news works... and public policy debate suffers accordingly.

Let's be clear. Gun violence for no good reason is a tragedy, as is any violence committed without a good reason. But violence to the truth is worse-- much worse.

It is only by unflinching and utter fidelity to the truth that free people can exercise and secure their rights. Fake news, even for what is imagined to be the best of intentions, is meant to seize control of people and bend them to the will of the propagandist. It is to impose a pernicious form of slavery, and just as evil when done by private parties and journalists as it is when done by organs of the state (such as in the events discussed here and here).


SO, THE NPR STORY and the nonsense by the 'American College of Physicians' and the 'Firearm Safety Among Children and Teens Consortium' to which it gave a pulpit offer a couple of good examples of why the MSM richly deserves the charge of being purveyors of fake news. Here are a few others, very much in brief, since this article is already over-long:

ANY REFERENCE in any news story to "Russian interference" in any election that doesn't include the word "alleged". Such references are intended to make readers or listeners believe that "Russian interference" has been established, when the fact is, no proof of interference by "Russia" of any kind has been made. This even though well-resourced massive institutions have purportedly been struggling to come up with some for years-- a fact which by itself serves strongly as evidence that no such interference took place.

The best that can be said to have been credibly alleged (even while still untested in any courtroom) on behalf of this fake news proposition of "Russian interference" is that a tiny number of social media posts (i.e., 80,000 on Facebook, out of 33 TRILLION posts overall during the same period) were made by some folks using ISPs geographically located in Russia.

Further, these posts overall did not favor any one candidate over any other, and many had nothing to do with any candidate at all. In fact, many were made after the election was over.

TREATING THE ACTS OF rock-throwing Palestinians protesting their dispossession of land and imprisonment in Gaza as the pugilistic equivalent of the deadly sniping with high-powered rifles conducted against them by Israeli soldiers, by failing to fully acknowledge all the relevant facts when "reporting" on either such event (if "reporting" on such events at all).

IMPLYING A FORCIBLE Russian annexation of Crimea and never acknowledging the massive referendum vote by the Crimean people to rejoin Russia after (and in response to) the US-facilitated (and perhaps instigated) coup by neo-Nazi Ukrainian thugs which violently overthrew the duly-elected and Russian-friendly government in 2014.

TREATING THE PROPOSITION OF human-caused "global warming" as a proven fact, even though this is in no way proven. Indeed, it is not even credibly alleged, in light of the very well-established fact of planetary temperature cycles.

PRETENDING THAT THE ASSAD REGIME used chemical weapons in August, 2013, and since, in the so-called "civil war" in Syria, and pretending that the "White Helmets" in Syria are a non-partisan aid-and-journalistic organization, rather than the propaganda organ of the US-backed "rebel" side that they really are.

PRETENDING THAT IRAN is a sponsor of terrorism and in any way militarily aggressive in its region (or elsewhere).

ETC., Etc..

BTW, don't let the fact that I am pointing out the sins of the MSM on the fake news front be mistaken as a defense or apology for the equally pernicious fake news-- often the same fake news, in fact, as in most of the examples briefly described above-- spewing out of the White House at a fierce pace (as has been the case for decades). Both are to be denounced.

This article overall is just an expose of MSM denunciations of Trump's accusations against them for purveying fake news as themselves being "fake news", if you are able to follow that convoluted explanation. What a snake-pit is built by infidelity to the truth, once it begins, right?!

BTW II: Don't forget that "fake news" is produced in order to generate support or justification for expenditures of your money on things generally benefitting the fake news producers, and which are generally harmful to you and your kids. Keep the money from those who will so spend it and the fake news will stop, too, it having thus lost its utility.

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Other Voices

We've just spoken about "fake news". Now let's see what is done to those who share REAL news, if the rest of us don't square up and defend them.

Crucifying Julian Assange

by Chris Hedges

Julian Assange’s sanctuary in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London has been transformed into a little shop of horrors. He has been largely cut off from communicating with the outside world for the last seven months. His Ecuadorian citizenship, granted to him as an asylum seeker, is in the process of being revoked. His health is failing. He is being denied medical care. His efforts for legal redress have been crippled by the gag rules, including Ecuadorian orders that he cannot make public his conditions inside the embassy in fighting revocation of his Ecuadorian citizenship.

Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison has refused to intercede on behalf of Assange, an Australian citizen, even though the new government in Ecuador, led by Lenín Moreno—who calls Assange an “inherited problem” and an impediment to better relations with Washington—is making the WikiLeaks founder’s life in the embassy unbearable. Almost daily, the embassy is imposing harsher conditions for Assange, including making him pay his medical bills, imposing arcane rules about how he must care for his cat and demanding that he perform a variety of demeaning housekeeping chores.

The Ecuadorians, reluctant to expel Assange after granting him political asylum and granting him citizenship, intend to make his existence so unpleasant he will agree to leave the embassy to be arrested by the British and extradited to the United States. The former president of Ecuador, Rafael Correa, whose government granted the publisher political asylum, describes Assange’s current living conditions as “torture.”


Click here to read the rest of this story.

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The Real Story Of Thanksgiving

Do yourself and society a favor-- read this to your kids.

THANKSGIVING DAY IS ONE OF MY FAVORITE special days of the year, and not because of the great food. The real virtues of this unique American celebration lie in the lessons in humility and maturity offered by its history.

The virtuous lessons to which I refer are offered only by Thanksgiving's true history, however. That true history is the exact opposite of the bogus, "Thank God (sorry... politically incorrect... make that, "Thank Fortuitous Random Chance") we were saved from starvation by the generosity of our neighbors-- see how wonderful socialism can be!" nonsense which too many Americans have been misled into imagining to be the truth.

In fact, the feast we commemorate on the fourth Thursday of November had nothing whatsoever to do with "generosity". What we actually commemorate on Thanksgiving is the Plymouth Rock colonists' recognition of the evils of socialism and the goodness of Adam Smith's "invisible hand" of profit-motivation unleashed by security in property rights.

It was that 11th-hour epiphany after a disastrous experiment with communitarian soulfulness that saved the colony from starvation. Thanks be to God, indeed, for that merciful and timely grant of wisdom.

IN VERY BRIEF SUMMARY, the Plymouth Rock colony began as a commune, organized under the principle that the proceeds of every individual's labors would be claimed of right by the community as a whole, and then redistributed in equal measure to every member. This system lasted for several years, during which the colony grew ever more hungry and impoverished.

Unable to keep the fruit of their labors for themselves, and with the unproductive receiving the same out of the communal resources as those who worked hard, soon no one worked hard. To do so was a fool's game.

The only competition un-smothered by the communitarian rule was the race to the bottom in the avoidance of labor. Every year the crops were thinner; every year the shares distributed to each colonist were more meager.

Finally, in 1623 and on the verge of the colony's failure (that is, the death of all the colonists), the feel-good socialist lunacy was recognized as the deadly mental virus that it is. The ruinous pretense that the community had a rightful claim on the food produced by each member was abandoned, and the colonist's rights to their own production was secured.

As it was recounted (in third-person format) in 1623 by William Bradford, Governor of the Colony:

...so they began to think how they might raise as much corn as they could, and obtain a better crop than they had done, that they might not still thus languish in misery.

At length, after much debate of things, the Governor (with the advice of the chiefest amongst them) gave way that they should set corn every man for his own particular, and in that regard trust to themselves; in all other things to go on in the general way as before. And so assigned to every family a parcel of land, according to the proportion of their number, for that end, only for present use (but made no division for inheritance) and ranged all boys and youth under some family.

This had very good success, for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corn was planted than otherwise would have been by any means the Governor or any other could use, and saved him a great deal of trouble, and gave far better content. The women now went willingly into the field, and took their little ones with them to set corn; which before would allege weakness and inability; whom to have compelled would have been thought great tyranny and oppression.

Thus, the deadly madness of socialism was replaced with a pragmatic expression of two natural laws: 1. no person (and no group of persons, acting under whatever title or label or pretense it may) can rightfully dictate the disposal of the product of another's labor; and 2. no society can violate a natural law without suffering the harmful consequences. It was only then that the colony had its first bountiful harvest, for which the members properly gave thanks.

IT IS THE BENEFICIAL CONSEQUENCE of the Plymouth Rock Colony's epiphany concerning the destructive follies of socialism and the rewarding virtues of natural law that we have celebrated on Thanksgiving over the years. Here is William Bradford again, expressing the lesson taken by these ancestors of the American revolutionaries of a century-and-a-half hence:

The experience that was had in this common course and condition, tried sundry years and that amongst godly and sober men, may well evince the vanity of that conceit of Plato's and other ancients applauded by some of later times; that the taking away of property and bringing in community into a commonwealth would make them happy and flourishing; as if they were wiser than God.

Needless to say, the experience of the Plymouth Rock Colony was firmly in the American memory at the time that our founding principles were spelled out. It is unsurprising that the colonists' hard-won wisdom deeply informs the Declaration of Independence, the principles enshrined in which are declared to be the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God.

It is unsurprising that the Articles of Confederation and our federal and various state Constitutions are constructed around the core principle that no government (which is, in theory, the agent of the community acting as a whole) has a claim of right to any property other than its own, or that which is produced by the exercise of its own unique prerogatives. The Plymouth Rock Colonists taught us the fatal folly of having things any other way.

THE VIRTUOUS LESSONS LEARNED by the Plymouth Rock Colony's near-disastrous experiment with a fancied and prideful "alternative" to the basic reality of natural law is well-worth the giving of thanks. So is the wisdom of our Founders in taking those lessons to heart and hardwiring them into our American legal structure.

With these things firmly in mind as the real reasons for celebration, I wish you all a Happy Thanksgiving. I hope that it finds you all well, and leaves you all comfortably stuffed with the good food and good cheer for which this holiday is casually and warmly known.

But I also hope that you all dwell for a few minutes on the more sober aspects of this commemoration. I especially hope you see to it that your children understand the truth (rather than the warm fuzzy fictions that they have been taught in their government schools and through the mindless popular culture).

The real lessons of Thanksgiving are very important lessons. Our societal well-being depends on those lessons remaining embedded in our American consciousness and institutions.

It has been famously and wisely observed that those who allow themselves to be ignorant of history lessons are doomed to repeat them, and we don't want our children or grandchildren to have to repeat this one. The good Lord might not be so forgiving of their arrogance the second time around.

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On 14th Amendment "Birthright Citizenship"

A subject broad and deep in misrepresentation and misunderstanding.

MUCH IN THE NEWS JUST NOW is the subject of "birthright citizenship" allegedly provided for in the 14th Amendment. As is true of so much law when inconvenient to an unsupported agenda, the language of the law itself is glossed over where it fails to serve.

In this case, the phrase "or naturalized" is the one conveniently disregarded, as though its presence has no impact on the meaning of the citizenship clause. But that phrase-- which translates as, "or granted citizenship"-- is actually the key to the meaning of the clause (or, at least, the key to untangling misrepresentation or misunderstanding of the clause).

Here is the complete language of the amendment, in relevant part:

"Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside."

So, let's insert the translation of "naturalized", which will make immediately obvious that this amendment clause is not intended to grant citizenship to anyone in any normal sense of the term:

"All persons born or granted citizenship in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside."

Obviously this language contemplates and concerns persons already possessed of citizenship by normal procedures-- either birth to citizen parents, or having been granted it through naturalization. Its purpose is not the granting of United States citizenship. Instead its purpose is the granting of state citizenship to those already United States citizens.

FURTHER, THOSE TO WHOM THIS CLAUSE APPLIES are the persons naturalized by the Civil Rights Act of 1866. That group consists of former slaves, and expressly excludes anyone "subject to any foreign power"-- that is, anyone born with allegiance to any other country by virtue of the parents' citizenship.

("Subject to the jurisdiction thereof" in the 14th Amendment is a restatement by other words of the Civil Rights Act's earlier phrase, "not subject to any foreign power". It was perhaps restated thusly in order to pre-empt exceptions who might argue their parents-- and thus themselves-- to not have been foreign allegiant, but who nonetheless are still not allegiant, by parental citizenship, to the United States.)

THE REASON FOR THE PROVISION, very briefly, is that after the slave population was emancipated following the War to Suppress Southern Independence, many states (North and South) refused to treat freed slaves as citizens. The refusal found expression particularly in the denial of voting rights.

This denial of voting rights to the freed slaves created a conundrum for the North. The Northern state bloc faced the prospect of increased Southern strength in Congress due to the entire former slave population now being counted in full (rather than at 3/5 each) for purposes of determining the number of representatives in each state's delegation. But with the freed slaves unable to vote, the interests represented by the stronger Southern delegations would likely remain just as hostile to the Northern agenda as ever they had been, simply with more power in their hands.

The solution was the 14th Amendment, compelling every state to treat all United States citizens living within their borders as citizens of the states, as well. The expectation was that this compelled citizenship would convey unabridged voting rights.

Even so, the optimistic expectation of proper state behavior was back-stopped. Recognizing that even state citizenship might not be enough to safeguard the Northern purpose against the acts of what are, after all, sovereign states (and were still thought of in that way, at that point), the following fail-safe language-- which nicely underscores the real and limited purpose of the "citizenship clause" in Section 1-- was also included in the amendment:

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

A GREAT DEAL MORE COULD BE SAID about the 14th Amendment overall. If I ever am able to be done with my advocacy for truth regarding the income tax and can move on to finishing the analysis of the Constitution with which I have been noodling for a number of years now, I'll say it.

For now, though, suffice it to say that Section 1 of the amendment in no way mandates the granting of citizenship-- either union-state or United States-- to any child of foreign parents who happens to be born on American soil. And this is especially true in regard to children of parents illegally in the United States.

Even the construction of the amendment's "citizenship" clause by the US Supreme Court in United States v. Wong Kim Ark (169 US 649, 1898), which did (mistakenly) find its way to affirming a 14th Amendment-based citizenship-by-birth claim of a man born to Chinese national parents who were long-time legal residents in the United States, does not avail advocates of "birthright citizenship" for the children of illegal aliens. In fact, Wong defeats the advocates' argument.

In that case, the court only found for Wong because of the status of those parents as being in the United States by permission, and under terms by which they were allegiant to the United States during their time in the country. It was during that period of allegiance and jurisdictional submission that their son was born.

The Wong majority, as part of the exhaustive explanation of its opinion, quotes Justice Joseph Story in Inglis v. Sailors' Snug Harbor (1833), 3 Pet. 99. There, Justice Story, referring to Calvin's Case, Blackstone's Commentaries, and Doe v. Jones, explains the basic principle from which the Wong court proceeds in finding that a child of legal residents can acquire citizenship by birth:

"Nothing is better settled at the common law than the doctrine that the children, even of aliens, born in a country while the parents are resident there under the protection of the government and owing a temporary allegiance thereto, are subjects by birth." 3 Pet. 164. (Emphasis added.)

The Wong court subsequently extends the legal residence distinction directly to its case at hand:

Chinese persons, born out of the United States, remaining subjects of the Emperor of China, and not having become citizens of the United States, are entitled to the protection of, and owe allegiance to, the United States so long as they are permitted by the United States to reside here, and are [thus] "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" in the same sense as all other aliens residing in the United States. Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886), 118 U.S. 356; Law Ow Bew v. United States 144 U.S. 47, 61, 62; Fong Yue Ting v. United States (1893), 149 U.S. 698, 724; Lem Moon Sing v. United States (1893), 158 U.S. 538, 547; Wong Wing v. United States (1896), 163 U.S. 228, 238. (Emphasis added.)

In the end this distinction is directly rested upon in the narrow ruling of the Wong court:

The evident intention, and the necessary effect, of the submission of this case to the decision of the court upon the facts agreed by the parties were to present for determination the single question stated at the beginning of this opinion, namely, whether a child born in the United States, of parent of Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the Emperor of China, but have a permanent domicil and residence in the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the Emperor of China, becomes at the time of his birth a citizen of the United States. For the reasons above stated, this court is of opinion that the question must be answered in the affirmative.

United States v. Wong Kim Ark (169 US 649, 1898) (Emphasis added.)

Plainly, the children born to those in the US illegally are in no way beneficiaries of even the Wong court's expansive and mistaken construction of the 14th Amendment's "citizenship clause". Indeed, the express resort by the court to the legal residence of the parents in finding for Wong is the exclusion of all those not enjoying the same distinction of circumstance, and thus a left-handed ruling by the Supreme Court to the effect that the children of illegals are not entitled to any such "birthright citizenship".

(It is also worth observing-- for the sake of good scholarship-- that while much in common and ancient law might have once weighed on the side of "birthright citizenship" on grounds outside the provisions of the 14th Amendment, the very adoption of that amendment with its explicit purposes and provisions on the subject has arguably now settled the question in the negative.)

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Mike Meade Shares His CtC Story

An uplifting journey to the liberating truth about the income tax.

Where's YOUR encouragement, uplift and inspiration for your fellow Americans?

Learn how and why to share those stories here.


The Entire Legal And Practical Truth About The Income Tax In Three Short Sentences

Focus on these simple points and you can teach anyone the truth about the tax.

1. The income tax is an excise.

2. Excise taxes are taxes on the gainful exercise of privileges.

3. You probably didn't earn your money by exercising any taxable privilege (or earned very little that way).

Inarguable (and nowhere disputed) proof of the first two statements above can be found concisely spelled-out in this little 7-page document. Whether the third is true for any particular person can be determined by consulting this guide to understanding "income-taxable privilege".



A Wise Warrior On What's Really At Stake


DON DON LA VIGNE, a long-time warrior and real American grown-up, shares a nice and inspiring testimonial on what CtC has done for him for over nine years now:


"Like a muddied stream or a polluted fountain is the righteous man who gives way before the wicked."

-Proverbs 25:26


"A nation of sheep begets a government of wolves."

-Edward R. Murrow


(Click on Saruman to see what he means...)


See Who's Really Been Lying About The Tax


Daft And Despicable Deniers

What the hell is wrong with these people?!


CAN YOU EVEN IMAGINE how abysmally stupid someone would have to be to continue to doubt or deny that CtC has revealed the actual, complete and insurmountable truth about the income tax in light of the overwhelming mountain of historical, legal, practical and logical evidence to the contrary? (Not to mention the outright lies and even ludicrous hoaxes the executive and some corrupt members of the judiciary have been caught at in desperate efforts to conceal the truth...)

Plainly any such denier must either be abysmally stupid or be an abysmally corrupt government official or other person who sees him or herself as benefitting from the lies about the tax by which America has suffered for 75 years now. Isn't this true?



A Few Good Folks With Good and Important Things To Say:

Find this film on YouTube at youtu.be/K0CYo57I3ks


How Do You Know When The State Is Lying?

An old joke, but in regard to this deceiver, not a laughing matter at all.

““When principles that run against your deepest convictions begin to win the day, then battle is your calling, and peace has become sin; you must, at the price of dearest peace, lay your convictions bare before friend and enemy, with all the fire of your faith.

-Abraham Kuyper


Assessing The Damage From The Misapplication Of The Income Tax

Man, are Americans getting ripped off...!


Looking For A Litigator Who Wants To Do Well While Doing Good

THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT presents details of a long-running (and still-ongoing) violation of the speech, conscience and due-process rights of two Americans. The offenses, in a nutshell, involve a federal district court attempting to dictate to these two folks-- word for word-- sworn "testimony" they are ordered to make in a legal contest with the government.

Click the link below to read the brief. You'll find it thoroughly supported with relevant testimony by the chief perpetrator and other similarly unambiguous exhibits.

The Civil Rights Lawsuit Documentation

"Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have the exact measure of the injustice and wrong which will be imposed on them, and these will continue till they have been resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they suppress."

-Frederick Douglass

"It does not take a majority to prevail... but rather an irate, tireless minority, keen on setting brushfires of freedom in the minds of men."

-Samuel Adams


"A slave is one who waits for someone to come and free him."

-Ezra Pound


A Michigan Version Of The "Watching The Watchmen" Amendment Has Been Proposed


Did you know…

 …The US may be the only country in the world where people working in the non-federal private sector must commit perjury in order to owe and pay ‘God’s things to Caesar’?

If you work in the private sector, stop falsely swearing that your private-sector earnings are federal “income”1.  Perjury is a crime.  Exercise the law’s provision for protecting your private-sector earnings from the 154-year-old2 indirect excise known as the federal income tax.  Rebut fraudulent allegations made by your payers regarding the legal nature of your work and the earnings derived therefrom, so that you pay only your fair share.  Join the hundreds of thousands of honest, law-abiding Americans who have been doing so for more than a decade.  Learn how for free at losthorizons.com.

1--“We must reject… …the broad contention submitted in behalf of the government that all receipts—everything that comes in—are income…”.

United States Supreme Court, So. Pacific v. Lowe, 247 U.S. 330, (1918)

2—The income tax in the United States was first instituted into law on July 1, 1862, during Lincoln’s presidency under the excise laws of the United States.   The preamble to the 1939 Internal Revenue Code traces its roots to this original income tax law.


Get this flyer as a printable .pdf here

Get this flyer as a multi-piece printable .pdf here


Poisonous Pieties

Now click here to learn the truth about the myths that have kept you from knowing the truth about the income tax


Trolls Against The Truth: A Dis-Information Campaign

UNLESS YOU'VE LOOKED, you can have no idea of the volume, intensity and mendacity deployed in the government's efforts to discourage Americans from learning what is revealed in CtC. It's truly astonishing.

A lot of folks are aware of the show-trial events in which my wife and I have received state-engineered public beatings meant to scare people away from the truth about the "ignorance tax" scam. But many are unaware of the overall campaign. This is a shame, really, because a focused propaganda effort like this one is a very powerful acknowledgement of the significance of CtC's revelations.

While the majority of Americans do not yet know how CtC protects them from the vampire state, the vampire itself certainly does. Dis-information campaigns like this one make that very clear.


FORMER CBS REPORTER SHERYL ATKISSON describes some aspects of this sort of dis-information campaign in the following video. Despite the annoying preliminary 15 seconds or so of advertising, her presentation is very much worth watching:

(H/T to Greg Belcher for finding and forwarding this great presentation.)

Losthorizons.com is one of those websites specifically-targeted by the corrupt interests at Wikipedia described by Atkisson. The behind-the-scenes folks at that site won't allow links on their pages to anything posted at losthorizons.com, nor even just text corrections of misinformation in their pages about the income tax.

That's the least of it. Click here for some specific discussion of the enormous scare campaign that's been actively spreading false information in hope of discouraging legitimate media attention, as well as men and women simply seeking the truth about the tax and liberty from the scourge of the "ignorance tax".

PLEASE GIVE SOME SERIOUS THOUGHT to the fact that YOU being secure in your own freedom rests on others learning the truth as well, and recognize that it falls to you to help overcome the dis-information campaign. Post and share your videos; share your victories; help silence the agents-provocateur and distraction-injectors whose nonsense is discussed and debunked here; and widely (and frankly, impatiently) share this page, this page and this page, challenging everyone in your address book to disconnect the phone and the TV for an afternoon and get educated.

Doing these things will be what makes it happen, Cap'n.

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An Excellent New Video About The Government Effort To Suppress CtC Has Hit YouTube!

DEREK CUSHMAN HAS POSTED a powerful presentation on government lies, propaganda and misinformation about CtC designed to discourage more Americans from reading the book and getting free of the misadministration of the tax:

You can also find this film on YouTube at https://youtu.be/V3_MViZDvo0 and on Vimeo at https://vimeo.com/175424277.

Watch it and share it, folks. This film will help a lot of people who have been taken in by the lies understand how they've been manipulated, and prompt a proper desire to learn the truth about the tax.

Well done, Derek!

P.S. If there were a thousand videos out there debunking government lies and encouraging Americans to learn the truth like this one does, the "ignorance tax" scheme would collapse in a month. So, where's yours?


Please Help losthorizons.com Be As Effective As Possible!

OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS I've heard from a number of folks that a firewall known as "Comodo" blocks access to this website. This is apparently a glitch in that program. This site is safe, as can be seen by going here.

Please share this info with others in your own address book so it gets around-- obviously those suffering the ill effects of this defect in Comodo won't be able to see it here themselves until they go into their firewall settings and manually whitelist losthorizons.com.

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WANTED! Your Article!!

Sharpen those quills, people!

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Why Aren't People Suing?



A New Policy

I HAVE DONE MY BEST to lead this country to liberty from the mis-applied income tax. I have labored hard. I've shed a lot of sweat, a fair bit of blood and more than a few tears. But I seem to be pretty poor at that kind of work.

When I have asked all of you for what I firmly believe is a necessary resource to move the ball downfield and give all of us the best chance at justice and an end to the assault on the rule of law-- simple testimonial videos requiring nothing from any of you but the phone in your pocket and three minutes of speaking from the heart-- I have had only a handful of people answer my call.

I CAN'T KEEP GOING THIS WAY. I have to be able to turn my attention away from writing new persuasive or skepticism-addressing articles week after week, and toward research, analysis and educational presentations that will benefit everyone already in this community. I need time to do some suing, and to bring together the resources and talent toward that end.

As said, it is my firm belief that your testimonial videos are the resource that I need to make big things happen, and they are unquestionably the thing I need to allow me to turn my attention away from trying to get horses to drink at the waterhole to which I have led them. Your words, in your great numbers and all in your own different ways, will do that better than anything I write possibly could.

And yet, you are not providing them. This, despite my having been asking you for them for many years now.

Therefore, with enormous reluctance, I am making portions of this website restricted access only. People have been urging me to do this for years now, telling me I should impose a charge to access my work-product, so as to enable me to keep producing.

I have never been inclined to charge fees for access. I ask for donations, and will continue to do that, and if they do not come, then I will conclude that my work is of no value to anyone, and I will close shop.

But I now WILL charge a special something for access to some key portions of that work-- testimonial videos, as discussed, described and demonstrated here.

SELECTED PAGES CONSTITUTING primarily "legal resources" pages now require passwords for access, and to get a password, I need your video. Similarly, if an email comes my way asking for guidance or assistance, it had best have a video attached, if I don't already have yours posted.

I hate to play it this way, but I want to win.

I'll tell you a story from when I was coaching my kids in soccer. Both of my kids at a certain age in their careers had run into a wall common to all but the very exceptional. They had gotten to be pretty good, and they wanted to enjoy the benefits of their hard work. But the arrival of this interest coincided with a new self-consciousness which made them reluctant to risk failing and looking foolish. So, they were hanging back from seizing the main chance when it appeared, and driving for the goal.

My solution was to post on the wall of our dining room a couple of simple points about self-discipline, the chief of which is this: You can't score a goal if you don't take a shot.

That's how it is here, too. If you don't stand up, you are laying down, and you'll never score that goal.

Here is what my kids live by now, in their own version of that lesson. I hear it from them all the time as they excel (accompanied by the sound of a father's breast swelling with pride): Go hard, or go home.

You, too. Go hard, or go home. Send those videos.

Do I ask for a lot? I want your victories to post, your financial support, your efforts at spreading the word, and your beautiful faces and inspiring words, too. It IS a lot.

But I'll let Thomas Paine explain:

"Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheaply, we esteem too lightly. Heaven knows how to put a proper price on its goods; and it would be strange indeed, if so celestial an article as freedom should not be highly rated.”

Fear nothing but God.

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Give Yourself A 30% Raise: A New Flyer


What Makes YOU A Warrior For The Truth?

We each have our reasons, and our story. It's time, and it's needed, for you to share yours with the world.


"The day we see truth and do not speak is the day we begin to die."

-Martin Luther King, Jr.

What does it for you?

Is it simply because no moral and upstanding person has any choice when it comes to telling the truth over his or her signature, whether on tax forms or anywhere else?

Is it recognition of the critical importance of the rule of law, and the knowledge that if everybody leaves its caretaking to someone else, it will soon be lost to us completely?

Is it the money?

Maybe it's just simple respect for your own rights as a human being, who is not and cannot be not involuntarily subordinated to others?

Maybe it's just simple respect for your general civic responsibility to be the grown-up and enforce frugality and restraint on a big, powerful creature of our own devising which otherwise is like a badly-raised teenage boy given whiskey and car keys and let loose on the road to wreak havoc?

Or is it, perhaps, a more acute anxiety that if our bonfire of a state isn't damped, and quickly, it'll soon burn down the house around us all?

What IS it that firms up your jaw and stiffens your resolve?

It's time to take off the bushel and share your light!

I would like you to think about what it is that motivates you for a few moments (or all day, if you like), and then send me your thoughts. I want to put YOUR reasons to work inspiring folks who don't yet understand what this is all about.

In this day and age, the most effective way for you to share your thinking for the benefit of others is to video-record yourself talking about how you feel, and explaining what inspires and motivates YOU.

All you need is a webcam or cell-phone equipped with a camera. If you don't have, or know how to use, one of these, have a friend help.

If needed, write a little script for yourself. Better, though, to just speak extemporaneously, after spending a little time sorting out your thoughts and getting down into your heart. Perhaps make it a video of someone in your family, or a close friend, interviewing you.

Dress "business casual". Be well-groomed.

Keep yourself to no more than 2 or 3 minutes, and keep in mind that the purpose is not to educate, but to INSPIRE, ENCOURAGE and ENERGIZE. Your video will be one of many to be shared.

You needn't feel any obligation to be profound, and you shouldn't try to explain anything about the law, other than to say that you have read it and you know it's on your side. You just need to be sincere, and uplifting. Your object is to make your audience want to have what you have, and to be where you are in your heart.

Keep in mind that you're speaking to an audience that doesn't yet know ANYTHING about the subject, and whose first reaction is, "This must be illegal; this must be dangerous; this is too good to be true." You want to pull that audience right past such things, and straight to a focus on truth, morality, and our American heritage of liberty and the rule of law.


Speak about rights. Speak about morality, and the obligation of a grown-up and responsible person to speak the truth and to enforce the Constitution. Speak about everyone's duty to give to God what is God's, always, and to Caesar only what is really Caesar's. Speak of your obligation to respect yourself, and to look out for the current and future well-being of your children and your fellow citizens. Speak of CtC, and what its information has done for your understanding and resolve. Show the book.

If you have had victories, describe them. Better still, show them, if possible.

Be clear about just what you accomplished: EVERYTHING back-- Social Security, Medicare and all; a "notice of deficiency" closing notice; an on-paper agreement or acknowledgment that your earnings weren't subject to the tax and everything withheld or paid-in was an "overpayment"; a transcript showing all $0s; or whatever happened.

When you speak of state victories, name the state. If you had to overcome balkiness from a tax agency before winning any victory, describe that, too!

If you're in a battle now, speak of your resolve to uphold the law, come what may. If you haven't yet begun to act, speak of your decision to do so, and your plans.

Remember, your purpose is to INSPIRE, ENCOURAGE and ENERGIZE.

If you're dealing with ongoing balkiness, describe that, too, if you wish-- but be sure to explain why you're not discouraged, and why you are not standing down, not slinking back into the barn, and not choosing to endorse the lies.

Mention what you do for a living, whether you're a doctor, homemaker, lawyer, trucker, IT guy or gal, or a retiree or student. Help people understand that the company of grown-up activist Americans they are being invited to join cuts across all demographics and all interests-- with the common denominator being respect for the law and love of the principles on which this great country was founded.

This is your chance to get a LOT accomplished.

We've all had frustrating occasions of trying to explain all this to a friend, neighbor, family member or co-worker, only to pile up against the wall of a mind not yet ready to listen and learn. Here is your chance to address a self-selected audience of folks who have themselves decided that it's time for them to begin paying attention, and have clicked on your testimonial for exactly that reason.

Further, think about this: You want judges, bureaucrats, CPAs, lawyers, the HR people where you work, your pastors, your neighbors and everyone else to acknowledge the truth about the tax openly and straightforwardly. How and why would these folks do this if YOU won't?

You want these folks to learn the truth. Why would they even recognize that there is a truth to be learned if you won't attest to having learned it yourself? You've got to stand up, face forward and chin up and tell these folks that you have studied and checked and verified and seen the evidence and seen the government evasions and you know that the tax is not the capitation that the beneficiary government wants everyone to think it is but a benign, but strictly limited thing, and that they need to study and learn that, too.

Again, if you have victories to show, that's nice, and powerful, too. But you don't have to have victories to display in order to declare your knowledge of what the law says. I've never flown around the world, but I've seen the evidence and considered the arguments, and I'm not hesitant to declare it a sphere...

Even those of you who haven't yet studied CtC have surely read this short document, and have verified everything in it for yourself. You should therefore be declaring its veracity and its message, loud and proud. Again, if you won't say it, how can you hope that others will ever even bother to look at the facts?

Be the change you want to see in the world, or there won't be any change.

So, please make and send those videos right away! You can share them with me via a cloud-based drive space like OneDrive.Live.com or GoogleDrive, or mail DVDs to me at 232 Oriole St., Commerce Twp., Michigan 48382, or even email to me if each file is no more than 20 megs (and you can break a video up if need be-- I can reassemble them). Render as .mpg or mp4, if possible; if not, send them how you have them and I'll make them work.

Remember, the restoration of institutional respect for individual rights and the rule of law depends on enough individuals insisting upon it. Do your part to let those starting to rub the sleep from their eyes know that there is a community already waiting for their fellowship with open arms and open hearts and shining spirits.

See how some of your fellow warriors for the truth have done their parts in videos sent over the years, many of which are posted here.

"It does not take a majority to prevail... but rather an irate, tireless minority, keen on setting brushfires of freedom in the minds of men."

-Samuel Adams

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The Crime of the Misapplied Income Tax


Was Grandpa Really A Moron?

Critical Inquiries for a New American Century

Bob’s Bicycles


Getting Free Of The "Income" Tax Scheme Is As Easy As Falling Off A Bike



To get an idea of how today's "income" tax scheme works, try this little exercise:


Think of the federal government as a guy named Bob, who lives down the street from you in a town that is really big on bicycles. Bikes get used for commuting, deliveries, shopping, etc.. In fact, other than walking, bicycles are the exclusive form of transportation in your town.

Your neighbor Bob has a by-the-mile bicycle-renting business-- "Bob's Bicycles". Bob's Bicycles is far and away the biggest business in town.

Part of Bob’s success is because he does a lot of contract business. However, Bob doesn't just get paid by riders who have signed an agreement with him, or even just those using Bob's bikes. Bob gets something every time anybody in town does any riding at all, through an odd combination of circumstances that took many years to come together.


Here's how it happened...


Bob's Bicycles was launched long ago by the great grandfather of the present Bob (Bob IV). Great Grandpa Bob started out not only with a main location for his contract business-- he also had the bright idea of setting up spots around town where he parked some of his bikes for use by the more occasional rider, on an "honor system". Anyone could take and use one of these bikes, but they were expected to keep track of their mileage, and send Bob a "1040 Mileage Ridden/Rent Due Form" (and the appropriate rent), periodically. The initial design of the form was like this:


I, ______________, rode a Bob's Bicycle a total of _____ miles this year.

At Bob's rental rate of $.15 per mile, I owe Bob $______


I said that Great Grandpa Bob planned to deal with these occasional riders on the "honor system", and that's true. But he liked his money, too, and didn't want to miss anything that was due him. So, after setting up the "self-serve" locations, Great Grandpa Bob went around handing out "W-2, 1099 or K-1 Rider Reporting Forms" to every other business in town. The forms-- accompanied by notices that if Bob didn't get his rent from someone riding a bicycle in connection with any business, he would sue the company involved-- said:


Click here to enjoy the rest of this illuminating little parable

(...and if you want to see a liberating transformation take place THIS YEAR, forward this file to everyone in your address book.)

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You Can’t Fight Well When You Don’t Know What You’re Fighting About

If you are having an argument with the IRS or any other tax agency,

  • You are NOT being presumed to have made “corporate profit”.

  • You are NOT being alleged to have received “foreign income”.

  • You are NOT entangled in an invisible “adhesion contract”.

  • You are NOT being obligated by a law whose subject is never identified.

You are being targeted because REAL EVIDENCE exists that YOU PERSONALLY HAD “INCOME” to which the revenue laws apply-- even though that evidence is almost certainly incorrect, and CAN be corrected.

There IS "A Law" By Which You Can Be Made Liable, And This Is How It Works

Now Learn How To Be Master Of The Situation

See the Proof

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Photographed on 1-70 in Missouri. America is waking up.


Do You Know What Happens When YOU Decide To "Let Someone Else Do It"?



"I am only one, but I am one. I cannot do everything, but I can do something. What I can do, I should do and, with the help of God, I will do."

-Everett Hale

(...and every other person who ever really deserved liberty)


"God grants liberty only to those who love it, and are always ready to guard and defend it."

-Daniel Webster


"A nation of sheep will beget a government of wolves."

-Edward R. Murrow





Get this graphic as a printable/postable/mailable .pdf

Browse other transformational-truth-spreading tools

Test Your "Income" Tax IQ!

CtC WARRIOR SanDiegoScott has put together a great little 20-question quiz to test your knowledge of the law regarding the United States "income" tax. Test yourself, test your friends and family! Test your accountant and tax attorney, and help them learn the liberating truth!!

Click here to take the test

Find more quizzes here

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CtC Videos And Audio Resources


"Never must thou take up a false cry, or join hands with the guilty by giving false witness in their favor. Never must thou follow with the crowd in doing wrong, or be swayed by many voices so as to give false judgment; even pity for the poor must not sway thee when judgment is to be given."

-Exodus 23:1-3


Doing A Little High-Payoff Math

IF EACH PERSON receiving this newsletter each week distributed as few as 100 of any of the great outreach tools featured here to co-workers, friends, neighbors and family members (or just strangers on the street, in the mall, etc...), we could have SEVERAL MILLION new Americans suddenly introduced to the liberating truth about the tax!

Just like that! In one week!

C'mon, people, let's roll on this!

“Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.”

‑Dale Carnegie

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Spread The Truth


A Few Tips For Making Best Use Of This WebSite



When directed to a page by topic or link, read everything.

I know that this can mean the investment of a lot of time, attention and effort, but although some may imagine otherwise, I don't write as much as I do because I can't think of any other way to spend my time...

Furthermore, when you encounter a hyperlink within, or associated with, the text you are reading, follow it!

It is pretty common these days for web-based material to be littered with hyperlinks. Sometimes the purpose is to provide definitions or examples, in order to ensure that folks reading the original material aren't presented with a word or reference which they don't understand. Sometimes the links lead to illustrations pertinent to the original text.

It is common-- and perfectly understandable-- for folks who are confident that they are familiar with language or references within the main text they are reading to get in the habit of skipping over included links. I do it all the time, myself!

However, I very rarely include links for definitional or explanatory purposes; and when I DO make a link out of text in one page it is generally to another self-contained page, rather than merely illustrative material. These other pages contain material the clear understanding of which I deem highly important for the proper and complete understanding of the original page. (Links to CtC, the Victories pages, CtC Warriors and so on are obvious exceptions to this general rule. On the other hand, a link to the victory Highlights or 'Every Which Way But Loose' pages, which might seem like such exceptions, are not. The special selection of victories on those pages, and the filed docs and tax-agency correspondences included therewith, themselves constitute highly instructive material which merits careful attention. Thus care needs to be taken in all cases.)

Please make a habit of clicking on all provided links and at least looking briefly to ensure that the linked page is one with which you are completely familiar from another study session.

Finally, please keep in mind that, annoying though it may seem at first blush (but not, I trust, upon reflection), I constantly tweak material already posted. Obviously this doesn't mean that every page is in flux at all times, but it does mean that if you are directed to a page that IS familiar, it's worthwhile to read it through again if it's been a while since your last having done so.


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"Those who will not reason, are bigots, those who cannot, are fools, and those who dare not, are slaves."

-George Gordon (Lord) Byron